Breast Cancer Research Team
Read about the team's ground-breaking work in breast cancer research
The following key terms and definitions may help you to feel more informed about your diagnosis. Please do not hesitate to contact a member of the Breast Team if further clarification is required.
Definitions courtesy of Breast Cancer Care
Given in addition to other treatment, for example chemotherapy or radiotherapy given after surgery.
Advanced breast cancer
Breast cancer that has spread beyond the breast and the lymph nodes under the arm to other parts of the body. Also known as secondary, stage 4 or metastatic breast cancer.
Under the arm, the armpit.
An operation to remove all the lymph nodes (also called lymph glands) from under the arm (axilla).
The lymph nodes (also called lymph glands) under the arm (axilla).
Affecting or about both the right and left sides of body. For example, a bilateral mastectomy is removal of both breasts.
Also known as secondary breast cancer in the bone. Cancer cells that have spread from the breast to the bones.
A test to help identify any abnormal changes, such as tumours, infection or fractures, in the bones.
Also known as secondary breast cancer in the brain. Cancer cells that have spread from the breast to the brain.
BRCA1 and BRCA2
People who inherit an altered BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene from either parent have a much higher risk of developing breast cancer and some other cancers compared with the general population.
Breast care nurse
Provides information and support to people diagnosed with breast cancer.
Treatment that destroys cancer cells using anti-cancer drugs.
Research that aims to improve treatment or care for patients.
The other or opposite side, for example the contralateral breast.
CT (computerised tomography) scan
Also known as a CAT scan. A type of scan that uses x-rays to take detailed pictures across the body.
DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ)
An early type of breast cancer where the cells have not yet developed the ability to spread out of the ducts into surrounding breast tissue or to other parts of the body. Sometimes called pre-invasive, intraductal or non-invasive cancer.
DEXA (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) scan
A scan that measures bone density, used to assess the risk of developing, diagnosing or monitoring Osteoporosis.
ER status ER positive (ER+)
means the breast cancer has oestrogen receptors. ER negative (ER-) means the breast cancer doesn’t have oestrogen receptors (see Oestrogen receptors)
The system used to classify cancer cells according to how different they are to normal breast cells and how quickly they are growing.
HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
A protein involved in the growth of cells. Around 15–20% of breast cancers have higher than normal levels of HER2 (known as HER2 positive) which stimulates them to grow.
Hormone receptor involved in the growth of cells
In some breast cancers they bind to hormones within the cells (known as hormone receptor positive) and stimulate the cancer to grow.
Chemical messengers produced in various organs of the body that regulate growth and reproduction.
Inflammatory breast cancer
A rare type of breast cancer where the skin of the breast looks red, and may feel warm and tender (‘inflamed’). In situ (breast cancer) Breast cancer that has not developed the ability to spread outside the ducts, either within the breast or elsewhere in the body.
Has the potential to spread to other parts of the body.
An operation to remove an area of breast tissue with or without a margin of healthy tissue. In breast cancer may also be called wide local excision or breast-conserving surgery.
Also known as lymph glands. Small oval-shaped structures found in clusters throughout the lymphatic system, for example under the arm (axilla).
The drainage and filtering system of the body, made up of lymph nodes (lymph glands), vessels and fluid. Helps to get rid of waste products and fight infection.
Swelling of the arm, hand or breast/chest area caused by a build-up of lymph fluid in the surface tissues of the body. It can occur as a result of damage to the lymphatic system, for example because of surgery and/or radiotherapy to the lymph nodes under the arm (axilla) and surrounding area.
When breast cancer cells spread into (invade) the lymph and blood vessels within the breast, and can be seen in these vessels under the microscope.
A breast x-ray.
Removal of all the breast tissue including the nipple area.
Another name for secondary breast cancer.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan
Uses magnetism and radio waves to produce a series of images of the inside of the body. An MRI doesn’t expose the body to x-ray radiation.
Cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy or hormone therapy, given before surgery. Sometimes called primary, for example primary hormone therapy.
Proteins within cancer cells that bind to the female hormone oestrogen and stimulate the cancer to grow (may be abbreviated to ER, from the US spelling estrogen).
PET (positron emission tomography) scan
A scan that produces a three-dimensional image giving details on both the structure and function of organs or tissue being looked at. It is sometimes combined with a CT scan.
Primary breast cancer
Breast cancer that has not spread beyond the breast or the lymph nodes (lymph glands) under the arm (axilla)
Proteins within cancer cells that bind to the hormone progesterone (may be abbreviated to PR).
The use of high energy x-rays to destroy cancer cells.
When a disease or condition returns. There are several types of breast cancer recurrence.
Secondary breast cancer
When cancer cells from the breast have spread to other parts of the body such as the bones, lungs, liver or brain. Also called metastases, advanced breast cancer, secondaries or stage 4 breast cancer.
The size of the cancer and how far it has spread.
Uses high frequency sound waves to produce an image.
Wide local excision (WLE)
Surgery to remove breast cancer with a margin of healthy tissue. Sometimes called breast-conserving surgery or lumpectomy.
Used to produce images of dense tissues in the body such as bone or lungs.